Tuesday, March 13, 2012

Abraham Lincoln and Louis Kossuth in 1852... an example of an integrated history lesson

Since our first school day seminar way back in October, there has been a lot of talk and interest in the American-World History integrated curriculum here at Reading Memorial High School.  We were even fortunate enough to have colleagues from Wilmington visit us a few weeks ago and sit in on some of our classes.  It was refreshing to have the faces of enthusiastic professionals in our classes while we taught.  As I look back to that October workshop and consider some of the documents that were discussed, a new great connection between world and U.S. history comes to mind.

Specifically, as we read through the Lincoln documents in an effort to get to know the man behind the myth, there were two that mentioned Louis Kossuth and the Hungarian Nationalist movement.  Lincoln was part of a call for a "Kossuth Meeting" and then helped run it and draft the resolutions from the actual meeting.  These documents can help students understand what Americans at the time thought of the intense nationalism and fervor that was fueling the revolutions in Europe in 1848.

Some of the information presented to students look like this:

I added one element to make the connection between Kossuth and the U.S. (referenced in the 6th bullet) more clear. Under the image of Kossuth on the left, students are instructed to read the primary source documents that are attached.  The first excerpt is from January 5, 1852:

It is proposed that a Kossuth meeting be held by the citizens and others now visiting the seat of government, on the 8th of January inst., at 7 o'clock P. M., at the court house in Springfield. All are invited to attend, and to express their views freely.

A. Lincoln, et. al.
Some questions for students to research and consider:
  • Why would Lincoln be one of the organizers of such a meeting? 
  • Did he hold any public office at the time? 
  • What does it say about his opinions of the revolutions of 1848?
Another excerpt from the resolutions of the meeting on January 8, 1852:

7. That we recognize in Governor Kossuth of Hungary the most worthy and distinguished representative of the cause of civil and religious liberty on the continent of Europe. A cause for which he and his nation struggled until they were overwhelmed by the armed intervention of a foreign despot, in violation of the more sacred principles of the laws of nature and of nations---principles held dear by the friends of freedom everywhere, and more especially by the people of these United States.
And then in the annotations, it is noted:

[1]   Illinois Journal, January 12, 1852. Lincoln spoke to the meeting on the 8th in favor of sympathy but non-intervention.
More questions for students to discuss:
  • What principles does Lincoln seem to be emphasizing in his support of the Hungarians based on the resolution? 
  • Why would Lincoln stress non-intervention?
While students are learning about the concepts of nationalism, conservatism, and liberalism in the context of the European Revolutions of 1848, it is also valuable for them to understand what Americans thought of these political ideologies at the same time.  Americans were not operating in a totally isolated environment.  While the Atlantic Ocean provided them with a great natural barrier that protected them from the conflict, they were certainly aware of the strife and had their own views of who was right and who was wrong.

This is a very simple lesson tweak that can really help students understand how the world was interacting long before the Internet made it easy.  Sometimes, these short additional documents and small lesson adjustments are all it takes to make an integrated curriculum work.

Sunday, March 4, 2012

Teaching with a Theme: Year Two

Just like last school year, I decided to make use of the professional development knowledge, ideas, and lessons I have gained by having a theme for the year in my modern American History course. This helps me to decide what to cut out as I try and add in new elements to my teaching. The theme I chose this year was “War and Society” with a sub-theme of “Public History.”

This year I think I did a better job of using my theme to guide students in the writing of their Sophomore Research Papers. Last year, my theme was “Southern Culture” and I let students make their own connections in their papers and use their own sources. This year, I gave students an article, an excerpt from Paul Rubenstein’s Reason to Kill (Rubenstein, Richard E. Reasons to Kill: Why Americans Choose War. New York, NY: Bloomsbury Press, 2010. Print). This excerpt was used in the Primary Source Summer Institute. In my class, I handed out copies of this article and had a class discussion about his list of common reasons for war. I also used this as a way to teach about bias and the idea of a secondary source versus a primary source. Later, I made this a mandatory source for my students to use in their papers. Their paper topics had to in some way connect to “War and Society” and I recommended that they use Rubenstein’s ideas to explain the background of the war(s) they were covering in their paper.

The final drafts of the papers are due Monday, March 5, 2012. When I was looking over the rough drafts, I saw that students had an easier time with this year’s theme because they were all using the same source and we had discussed it in class. It also helped them start the paper. Sometimes, I think students are overwhelmed with the idea of sitting down to write an eight-ten page paper. Despite having an outline, they don’t know where or how to start the writing of the paper. This year, students felt comfortable with starting their papers by describing the cause of the war by using Rubenstein’s reasons. I also found in the rough drafts that most students seemed to have a better understanding of using primary and secondary sources in their papers because of the lesson I did with them at the start of the year.

As for my sub-theme, I didn’t formally announce this to students. I figured they might think it was boring, so I decided to subtly use it throughout the year. So, I have embedded the ideas of public history into my teaching. I started with talking about the idea of having a 9/11 Memorial in the Town of Wilmington. I encouraged interested students to join our 9/11 Memorial Committee, but I also asked students about their ideas about what should and shouldn’t go into a memorial. I went over the difference between a historical maker, monument and memorial. I continued this discussion when we covered our first war in the course, the Spanish American War. We used Rubenstein’s article to analyze the causes of the war. We also examined memorials and monuments in the United States dedicated to aspects of that war. Lastly, we discussed other examples of public history that students have heard of or personally visited.

Right now in class, my students are wrapping up their designs for a Smithsonian Exhibit on the Dropping of the Atomic Bomb. This was the lesson I created for the second year of our grant. I plan to share some examples of student work with you in a separate blog entry. I am very excited and impressed by their work! When we discussed the reflection piece, I brought back the idea of public history, this time using those words. Students agreed that if they visit exhibits in the future, they will most likely think about what was chosen for the exhibit and its intent. At the end of the year, I hope to bring things full circle by asking them to write about the themes we covered on their final exam.